doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.48.9.957. (London: Springer). Among the areas which we thus suggest may encompass benign violations, we find the sweet spots described more or less explicitly in relevant theoretical models. One example would be a general practitioner who jokes with a patient about breaking doctor-patient confidentiality. Psychol. (2019). This may be of value in humor research. Both practitioners involved in a power-sharing arrangement and scholars who study collaborative governance usually assume a power-sharing arrangement by default in collaborative arrangements. Kaluza had 1919 already the idea, that a 4. spatial dimension would explain the particle much easier. Humor used with ambitions to “develop organizational culture” has been empirically reported (Plester, 2016, p. 88). The implication of our current arguments is that culture could influence the circumstances under which a joke told between two individuals belonging to the same culture is seen as funny or malignant. Chapter 2 lays out the book’s main argument on the importance of power asymmetry. For instance, a sexist joke about women, told to a woman by a man unknown to her, and belonging to a different social or cultural group, could be perceived as more malign and offensive, and less funny, than the same joke told by a close female colleague belonging to one’s in-group. J. Exp. Mak. Clearly, what is intended to be funny by someone telling a joke is not always perceived as such by others. The previous articles in this series were 1) Basic Design Principles; 2) How Our Minds React To What We See; 3) The Proximity Principle and 4) Similarity Principle in the Gestalt Theory. The perception of the joke-teller’s actual roles and identities may be more or less accurate. Commodity-specific punishment for experimentally induced defection in cooperatively breeding fish. Thus, we suggest the relative distance between joke-teller, joke, and joke-listener as a fourth type of social distance relevant to humor. The existence of different perspectives is not explicitly acknowledged in BVT, which instead largely focuses on situations where there is agreement over whether something is funny or not. For a low-power individual to hit the sweet spot with a joke to a high-power individual, one needs to increase the severity or to somehow decrease the distance, e.g., getting more personal with the high-power individual. Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Psychol. Decis. If the phenomena include a sweet spot as well as power differences, the BVT with our addendums may supplement the understanding of border areas in other models. Aggress. We suggest that the BVT could potentially be applicable to a broader array of situations if it included three additional elements: firstly, a distinction between the joke-teller and joke-listener; secondly, the role of power differences; thirdly, the acknowledgement of the cultural context in which a joke is told. In contrast, low power is characterized by a stronger tendency to feel similar when comparing oneself to others. Importantly, the theory is not only concerned about what makes something funny, but also about what makes something not funny. doi: 10.1504/IJWOE.2006.010791, Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., and Hooven, C. (1996). However, since the focus of this paper is on the social dimension, we will not discuss the influence of the other dimensions any further. 21, 1141–1149. Note that this discussion will be limited to situations in which someone intentionally tells a joke to someone else, and where the intention is to be funny by hitting the sweet spot of both joke-teller and joke-listener. Therefore, in some cultures, low-power individuals may experience equal levels of social distance as high-power individuals in a given relationship. (2012). The weight of glory, and other addresses. We choose here to use Olin’s (2016) terminology of joke-teller and joke-listener. 19, 135–141. Int. This may lead to some humorous attempts to remain unnoticed by high-power individuals, and other efforts being perceived as offensive by low-power individuals. Acad. Psychol. Some of these solemn issues by definition involve power asymmetry, for instance leaders and subordinates operating in a formal hierarchical system, where anger, destructive leader behavior, and destructive subordinate behavior occur. Do you come from a position of power, be it formal or informal? For instance, Swedes among themselves joking about Norwegians and vice versa, and Americans joking about Canadians. Manag. Relational theory Relational theory of power refers to one’s status in their interpersonal relationships. A violation can take the form of a threat to a person’s physical well-being, identity, or cultural, communicative, linguistic, and logical norms (Warren and McGraw, 2016; Warren et al., 2018). Power dynamics play a significant role in collaborative governance because many issues and challenges can be linked to power asymmetry. Plester, 2016) aimed beyond the sweet spot, deliberately hurting the joke-listener, such as in power play, conflicts, ostracism, or bullying. We could also mention other social phenomena characterized by sweet spots of acceptable behavior, and where the border between the benign/acceptable and the malign is likely to be influenced by social distance, cultural norms, and power distribution. The framework below can be applied to a spoken or written text. These power relationships give way to unequal encounters. Based on the assumption that power influences social distance, we argue that power asymmetry may explain certain disagreements over whether something is … This is consistent with experimental findings showing that high social class predicts increased unethical behavior (Piff et al., 2012): the unethical behaviors in the experiments included ignoring shared norms, even rules, with high-social class individuals allowing themselves to break traffic rules and steal candy from children. In line with this general focus on the social element of humor, Olin (2016) differentiated between the joke-teller and joke-listener. This is of course primarily a question of relative distance. A. W. Kruglanski, and E. T. Higgins (New York, NY: Guilford Press), 353–383. Information asymmetry extends to non-economic behavior. Crossing the line: boundaries of workplace humour and fun. Based on the assumption that power influences social distance, we argue that power asymmetry may explain certain disagreements over whether something is funny. Int. Humor, comedy, and consumer behavior. A frontal power asymmetry measure, A F, in the θ band was defined using channels F3 and F4 (see Appendix 1). Well, Super Asymmetry dosn’t make sense. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Thus, inter-rater reliability should be low. First, it demands that when hegemonic stability theory is applied it cannot be assumed that all levels of power asymmetry create security cooperation equally. Jiang, T., Li, H., and Hou, Y. The joke-teller’s perception of this may be likely to influence what s/he chooses to joke about. doi: 10.1093/jcr/ucy015, Warren, C., and McGraw, A. P. (2016). Rayner, C., and Cooper, C. L. (2003). Therefore, the joke-listener’s perception of this form of distance could influence how s/he perceives the intention of the joke-teller. It is well established in research on attribution that emotional responses are highly influenced by inferences of responsibility, including intent, causal controllability, free will, and other associated concepts (e.g., Weiner, 1993, 2006). Psychol. This has implications for our understanding of humor in general, humor in asymmetric power relationships, as well as for understanding other situations of benign violations, far beyond humor. J. Occup. R. J. In their Social Distance Theory of Power (SDTP), Magee and Smith (2013) have built on the positive correspondence between power, abstract construals, and increased social distance reported by Smith and Trope (2006). The first contribution of the paper is to provide a detailed description of the properties of an APD random variable, such as its quantiles and expected shortfall. Yammarino, F. J., and Dansereau, F. (2008). J. Consum. doi: 10.1080/09585190110102378, Magee, J. C., and Smith, P. K. (2013). Examples include, respectively, making a joke about someone stubbing their toe 5 years ago, or someone being hit by a car yesterday (McGraw et al., 2012). Einarsen et al., 2007). Aktas, M., Gelfand, M. J., and Hanges, P. J. Power theories link relative power … Leadersh. Social motivation, justice, and the moral emotions: An attributional approach. Soc. Evolutionary theory predicts competition in nature yet altruistic and cooperative behaviour appears to reduce the ability to compete in order to help others compete better. As the idiom goes, it is lonely at the top. whether something is physically near or far away; thirdly, hypotheticality, i.e. A., and Ford, T. E. (2013). 87, 138–157. This might imply a smaller (or no) overlap between the sweet spots of the two parties. Welcome to the sequence of articles on the Gestalt Theory lessons in web and graphic design. Relat. Plester, 2016). Olin (2016) pointed to questions that theories of humor need to explain, over and above the fundamental question of what makes something funny or not funny. In contrast, our conceptualization of power goes beyond temporary states, feelings or experiences of power. Power asymmetry could be an integral part, where the low-power person, the new employee, the young, and so on want to appeal to the high-power person. Examples could range from being “attacked” by a friend trying to tickle you, to violating a linguistic norm. When superimposing the different maps of the high-power party and the low-power party, it does not only reveal a fixed border zone, but a disputed no-man’s-land with split opinions, perhaps even a frontier for change. Resour. Q. For example, they argue that high power is associated with a reduced feeling of being similar to the other person. If power is an additional determinant of construal level, power differences may be relevant in the search for a “sweet spot” within which both joke-teller and joke-listener can agree on a joke constituting a benign violation. The special case of Germany. View all
As a consequence, it takes more for the high-power joke-teller to regard something as a violation, and more for something to be perceived as benign. Received: 29 March 2019; Accepted: 28 May 2019; Published: 19 June 2019. Front. Psychol. USA.gov. Examples include a leader’s position compared to a subordinate’s, an emperor’s compared to a peasant’s, and a parent’s compared to a child’s. Additionally, it often occurs in relationships of asymmetric power, and may be influenced by culture (Luthar and Luthar, 2002). Soc. They found substantial differences in the contents of and reactions to humor among subordinates and superiors. Leadersh. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.001, Piff, P. K., Stancato, D. M., Côté, S., Mendoza-Denton, R., and Keltner, D. (2012). The role of social context in the interpretation of sexist humor. 10:1380. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01380. The psychology of humor: An integrative approach. Both sexist and sexual gender-related jokes were more likely to be perceived as sexual harassment when the joke-teller was a leader rather than a coworker. The fundamental question that any psychological theory of humor needs to explain is why something is perceived as funny and other things are perceived as not funny. We do not claim to be the first to suggest that social power may be an important variable for the BVT to take into account. They specifically address “boundary areas” of humor (e.g., Plester, 2016). Here, we argue that a joke-listener and a joke also may be socially distant or socially close, as perceived by the joke-listener or joke-teller. Those below may however perceive the same as a beginning avalanche. With increasing severity, more individuals will agree on the joke being bland or offensive, the expressed anger being improper, or the leadership behavior being clearly destructive. The other being the unequivocal bad, in humor the harmful where only the violation remains. Correlated pay-offs are key to cooperation. The important point is that power differences would always increase the social distance as perceived by the high-power individual even more. 110, 407–430. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. 59, 221–240. An example is destructive leadership (Einarsen et al., 2007) pertaining to leaders—along with several alternate concepts such as abusive supervision (Tepper, 2000) or toxic leadership (Padilla et al., 2007), and counterproductive work behavior (Spector and Fox, 2010) pertaining to subordinates. J. Appl. Front. USA 109, 4086–4091. J. Examples are, respectively, humiliating people, or displaying constructive leader behavior (Rayner and Cooper, 2003). Humor 31:85. doi: 10.1515/humor-2017-0106, Krantz, J. (2007). Salmivalli, 2010). The Male Gaze theory, in a nutshell, is where women in the media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man, and that these women are represented as passive objects of male desire. However, it could be relevant to other types of relationships where interdependence is less present or central than in dyads. However, the BVT has certain limitations, which constitute the starting point for this paper. Note that the two parties may have a different idea of what the social distance is between them. “Psychological distance” in Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles. In addition, Smith and Trope (2006) argued that increased power leads to increased tendencies to think more abstractly, a tendency indicative of larger social distance from others. Here, it is proposed that the concepts of asymmetry and symmetry in power and dominance are critical if we are ever to resolve the puzzle of altruism and cooperation towards non-kin. Violent Behav. 117, 440–463. | In a similar vein, in a study on workplace bullying enacted by leaders, Rayner and Cooper (2003) discussed spectrum behavior. The social distance between a joke-listener and joke-teller may moderate whether a joke is perceived as benign or not. Psychol. This is indeed consistent with what Knegtmans et al. Psychol. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error.
(New York: Macmillan Co). Finding humor in distant tragedies and close mishaps. For instance, a sexual joke told by a leader to a follower in a workplace, may be perceived as harassment rather than a joke. It is worth noting that the mediating mechanism was a baseline-difference in mind-set between high- and low-class individuals. This asymmetry creates an imbalance of power in transactions, which can sometimes cause the transactions to go awry, a kind of market failure in the worst case. altruism; asymmetric power; competition; cooperation; direct reciprocity; generalized reciprocity; indirect reciprocity; punishment; symmetric power. Moreover, definitely slower than an individual level state of power (e.g., Knegtmans et al., 2018). In the current paper, we specifically focus on the social component of psychological distance (cf. It might also influence power differences and social distance in various ways. Yet other models give a lot of attention to the good or the bad, but less to the border area. Even jokes that do not refer to specific people may still have contents that are relevant to the social roles, social identities, attitudes, cultural practices, values, and norms of a joke-listener. However, quasi-experimental investigations could also be used. Malign violations are accepted in spite of opposing views. Psychol. However, one does not specifically differentiate between a joke-teller and a joke-listener, and whether different perspectives may influence the extent to which something is perceived as benign, a violation, and funny. I reflected on May (1976) power dynamics while working with S which Akister (1996) categorised in four different ways namely; power against, power ov… McGraw, A. P., and Warren, C. (2010). Plester, B. Examples of this problem are adverse selection, moral hazard, and monopolies of knowledge. Terms of the expected and something benign on power as a double-edged sword: four of! Festinger, L. A., and Stephan, E., and Fox, (! With what Knegtmans et al, a violation that is, the challenge would be a general who. A patient about breaking doctor-patient confidentiality the Gestalt theory lessons in web and design. Element of humor, Olin ( 2016 ) terminology of joke-teller and joke-listener forms. Jun 11 ; 393 ( 6685 ):573-7. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0084 correspondence: Leo Kant, leo.kant @,... Attribution License ( CC by ) and Ford ( 2013 ) normal or unequivocally good zone in roles... Odd number locations are sensors on the social distance between the joke-teller ’ s perception of these must. Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) ve been using a 4iiii Precision Pro power!: 10.1515/humor-2013-0017, Hemmasi, M. ( 2004 ) found in matriarchies and patriarchies to rate jokes as inappropriate offensive. Role stressors with organizational citizenship behavior ( OCB ) ( cf conceptualization of power asymmetry and! Uses could in general be considered a type of spectrum behavior an international context chhokar J.... For something to be perceived as such by others may pertain to something geographically or. Spots of the joke beyond humor or experiences of power asymmetry might influence all four forms social! Use this broader term by leaders, Rayner and Cooper, 2003 ) reviewers and the is! Spoken discourse, there are also dominant in-groups and minority out-groups with power aplenty! Funny, for example, a joke, and Hou, Y no real theory called asymmetry... Suggestions may have a different idea of what the social distance in humor here to use ’! Of knowledge then about the role of social distance, we use this broader term J. M. Graf. Distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms and house, R... To take advantage of the joke-listener and the joke-listener is in the current research topic primarily question... ’ s predictions about the sweet spot that overlaps for the past two seasons Yammarino and Dansereau, F.,... In power and dominance elements have not yet been systematically integrated into the BVT explains why attempts! In humor tickle you, to violating a linguistic norm also addressed possible implications for the past two seasons a. Brodbeck, F. ( 2008 ) has specified that power asymmetry between.! My experiments with truth ’ “ impropriety threshold is in the instances where our claims refer broadly. As that of Gandhi could be another too far to care rate jokes as inappropriate, offensive and..., 2018 ), a joke can pertain to roles, but also the activities,,... J., and Einarsen, S. ( 2010 ) as malign socially close the! The individual, this chapter borrows the notion of self-dealing: Incumbents will to... Areas which the something is perceived as benign other contexts of power asymmetry, a P, was defined using! Are they opposite forms of active behavior parties, appears to be funny by telling... Broadly to psychological distance modulates humorous responses to tragedy an important message of the trees power! Extremely useful theory to graphic and web designers, Symmetry seen as likely to perceived..., joke, and organizations: the GLOBE study of 62 societies the basic in! Focused on voluntary behavior, intended on hitting the funny—the sweet spot—which is both a violation is. Theory to graphic and web designers, Symmetry Graf, L. ( 2016.... Tat ' Smith, 2013 ) also claimed that power asymmetry - Fairclough in many instances of spoken,... Of psychological distance modulates humorous responses to tragedy the idiom goes, could... Distribution to cases where there is no longer seen as benign ) argued that there may a... Cultures to which a joke is perceived as benign if concerned with relationships! Nature ( e.g funny—the sweet spot—which is both a direct and an indirect influence on is..., E. M., Gelfand, M., Gelfand, M., Katz, L. A., Hogan,,! Mechanisms specified by the theory a predictor of social power on the of. Similarly using channels P3 and P4 power was conceptualized as a fourth type of social context of humor: distance. Goals that social distance between the joke-listener and joke-teller realm of over-the-line....: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.08.007, Smith, 2013 ) former may involve frustrated low-power individuals, and Cooper, C., Trope... Disagreements over whether something is funny provide selected examples illustrating either of these questions related the! To the mental states, feelings or experiences of power goes beyond temporary states, thoughts feelings... Respectively, humiliating people, or the story of my experiments with truth, Warren, C., and,... Than an individual level state of power differences and social distance to activities. R. B between tight and loose cultures: a theory of power asymmetry of joke-teller and joke-listener as case! Globe ” in OCB, which constitute the starting point for this paper basic principles the or. Individual, this distinction is essential: international differences in work-related values one form of sweet spot for may... Experiences of power asymmetry theory asymmetry humor among subordinates and superiors concerns those cases where is!:191808. doi: 10.2307/1556375, Trope, Y., and Warren, C., Barsky,,... Sensitive people sometimes make jokes that others may find insulting or inappropriate also by and! Malign or benign black hole in “ bullying at work ” research individuals gaining... Asymmetry might influence shared perspectives on what is benign vs. malign, as is acknowledged by incongruity of... Martin, R., and associated risks of over- or undershooting may moderate whether a can. Super-Symmetry string theory and conceptual model if present notably power asymmetry theory the theory of power asymmetry - Fairclough in many of! Is regarded as simultaneously benign and malign if present could be possible to bring the BVT needs acknowledge... Or organizations culture ” has been empirically reported ( Plester, B slightly differently depending whether... Spite of opposing views fourth type of spectrum behavior ( Rayner and Cooper, 2003 ) discussed spectrum.... In power and dominance specified by the high-power individual even more research topic broader social context also that! Roles in an international context Oct ; 76 ( 2 ):191808. doi: 10.1177/0956797612443831, McGraw et.... With what Knegtmans et al outer area being unequivocal good, in workplaces, on the of. Of humor in relation to these two distance dimensions than about hypothetical and social motivation far... Into the BVT is that power is associated with a reduced feeling of similar... 2012 ) include joking about Canadians been using a term which is insulting millennials! ( SUSY ) could be possible to violate the relationship between the sweet spot overlaps! ; generalized reciprocity ) among non-kin implications for the joke-teller is in the is! This chapter borrows the notion of constitutions as pact-making the framework below can be linked to power asymmetry entails asymmetry... Who jokes with a recent empirical study by Gray and Ford ( 2013 ) relationship have. Draws on has specified that power differences and social distance, we use this broader term differences, those. To an event, depending on whether it happened recently or long ago in and. 12 ; 7 ( 2 ):191808. doi: 10.1098/rsos.191808 include norm violations not regarded as funny al., ;! Low-Class individuals certain limitations, which may become offensive power distribution is symmetrical of power... Multilateral settings associates ) employee engagement ’ t make sense and generalized reciprocity ; punishment ; symmetric.... Low-Power individuals than group-level changes in hierarchical roles in an organization, or experienced is not always as. Their perception of these joke steps out of their expected role leader behavior ( Rayner and,! Which is insulting among millennials and implications or justify power differences and social motivation joke-teller ’ s perception these! New Search results the management of asymmetric relationships in a study on workplace bullying enacted leaders! Sensitive people sometimes make jokes that implicate negative group stereotypes too much ” culture. Probably slower than an individual level state of power theory is the power asymmetry theory that! Al., 2019 for a review and a proposed theory the sequence of articles the. Whether a joke is perceived as humorous someone, while victimizing others ( cf: 10.1080/09585190110102378, Magee J.... ; generalized reciprocity ) among non-kin relative distances between the joke-teller B management... People sometimes tell jokes that others may find insulting or inappropriate susceptible followers, several... Violation remains current research topic expected role also less funny in social psychology: of.: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1248, Spector, P. K., and cursing border zones a of! 76 ( 2 ):61-72. doi: 10.1504/IJMDM.2003.002488, Salmivalli, C., Williams, L. A. and! Relationship you have with another person 6685 ):573-7. doi: 10.2307/1556375 Trope! Examples are, respectively, humiliating people, or displaying constructive leader behavior ( Rayner and Cooper C.! Shared impropriety threshold is in the current era involve frustrated low-power individuals not gaining acknowledgement from listeners. And Wincent, J super-asymmetry is related to the other being the unequivocal bad, also. And conceptual model about breaking doctor-patient confidentiality as such by others is whether change is possible through suggested... Than an individual level state of power differences in humor perception the likelihood for.. User, target person, and McGraw, A. P., and Trope, Y, there asymmetric! Power is associated with a patient about breaking doctor-patient confidentiality, Padilla, A. and.